Archive for the ‘Reading Response Memos’ Category

Blog #2 The Christian Revolution: Philip Jenkins Jaewon Choi

Wednesday, May 11th, 2011

As stated in this article, most recently majority of Christians have lived in White nations or “European Christian” civilization. However, over the past century its new member growth takes place in the regions to Africa, Asia, and Latin America. A typical contemporary Christian is a woman living in a village in Nigeria or Brazil.  The worldwide growth of Christianity will boom in the current century and will be non-white or non-European based believers.

The era of Western Christianity is in decline and emerging Southern Christianity at present. The obvious difference between the older and newer churches in that Southern Christians are far more conservative in terms of beliefs and moral teaching. Southern Christianity has very strong ties to supernatural orientation and by far more interested in personal salvation than radical politics. Therefore the future of dominant churches will have more commonality with those of medieval or early modern European times.  However, the centers of troubled states are weak so are their citizens’ political loyalties that importance of their religious beliefs takes over for its lack of solidity and security. Both Muslim and Christian will define identities through their religious affiliation. The new southern Christianity could find unity in common religious beliefs and when it develops powerful Christian identity in culture and politics will want and aspire to some sort of global unity.

The newer churches the Bible can be read with any authenticity and immediacy to Southern Christians. As a large part of the Bible, Old and New Testaments, addresses the sufferings of God’s people in the face of evil secular authorities. Millions of Christians worldwide live in constant danger of persecution or forced conversion, from government or local vigilantes, modern Christians in Nigeria, the Sudan, or Indonesia. In varied situations, ordinary believers are forced to understand why their conditions in suffering are relevant to their present life of massacres and expulsion. Unlike in the West, the danger of some angry letters to local newspapers, but it can lead to bloodshed and massacre.  In these societies, The New Testament warnings about humility and discretion not just Christian virtues, they can make the difference between life and death.

Blog #5 – Inside American Islam / Face Veil Ban

Monday, May 9th, 2011

I believe that many Americans misunderstand Muslims and their religion. Due to U.S. media and propaganda, many Americans are quite confused regarding the clear difference between Muslims and those who have committed acts of terror on our country. After 9/11, our country drastically changed. The mass hysteria created around Muslims and Islam by the use of terrorists has truly had a large impact on our country by dividing many.

In the audio, “Inside American Islam,” Akbar Ahmed discusses his anthropological knowledge and his experience of visiting 100 mosques around America. Akbar Ahmed states that because Americans are living in times of rapid change and crisis, by adding a sense of fear and uncertainty, such a catalyst could raise havoc. The catalyst he is referring to is the building of mosques all around our country and the uproar coming from Americans who are not in favor of these mosques being built.

Tariq Ramadan and Resa Aslan are also mentioned in this audio. They each discuss their views on the ignorance around the Muslim community. After 9/11, a gap has opened up between Muslims and Non-Muslims. Muslims either feel angry or scared due to the violence seen around mosques in the U.S. Because Islam remains unknown to most Americans, their insecurities and fears regarding the religion continues.

Tariq Ramadan also discusses this issue in the regard to face veils. In the video about banning the face veil, Tariq Ramadan states his beliefs regarding women wearing face veils and how the government should not have any involvement regarding the issue. Ramadan believes that the government/state should not be able to decide. The issue of allowing women to wear face veils is more of a political issue over anything else. Ramadan states that many women who wear veils decide to do so on their own, not because it is being forced.

Blog post 1 Bin Laden and other Thoroughly Modern Muslims

Thursday, May 5th, 2011

What I took out of reading this article was that Charles Kurzman really broke down the similarities and differences liberal Muslims and radical Islamists.

He goes on the state that most Islamists have graduated from modern schools, share modern values such as human equality and rule of law, and use modern technologies and some of them the latest methods of warfare. Many Islamist leaders have university instead of seminary educational backgrounds such as civil engineering, mechanical engineering and lawyers. So this goes to show that no matter what their religion is they still share modern values like in the western world.  Although the traditionalist groups, such as Bin Laden’s Al Qaeda network, are less willing to become a more modern entity.

Kurzman does believe that Islam is in fact a Western religion with many Muslims from across the world practicing Western politics

He seems very fare and equal, he stands by his views. He mentions that there needs to be more diversity in the Islamic countries which I agree with. I found a quote that I thought was extremely important In the interview with Tariq Ramadan. He was arguing that Muslims are “Western by culture, Muslim by religion”.

Cultural Globalization: The Role of Religions 5/3/2011 Jaewon Choi

Tuesday, May 3rd, 2011

This article by Charles Kurzman on the subject of Bin Laden and Other Thoroughly Modern Muslims explains and brings clarity on the ideological differences in modern Muslims today in their cultural and religious goals and views. As well as U.S. and allies are hypocritical in supporting autocrats in Muslim-majority countries while declares to defend human rights and democracy.

The review of this article and assignment is most timely as death of Bin Laden will once again change ongoing struggles of war on terrorism may bring unknown results in the future for the radical minority of Muslims and the Western culture. In this article states that Osama Bin Laden exemplified radical Islamism as medieval and wanting to return to origin of Islamic world of its golden era to seek and conduct after the prophet Muhammad and his followers as Christians idealize the example of Jesus.

As both Islamic liberals and radical Islamists have much in common in that seek to modernize society and politics to redirect its tradition in modern form and function. Traditionalists as the Taliban Afghanistan by contrast with Islamists as bin Laden’s Al Qaeda network, represent on less educated sector of society, believe in mystical and personal authority and are skeptical of modern organizational structure.

Many Islamist leaders have university instead of seminary educational backgrounds such as lawyer, civil engineering, mechanical engineering and these leaders railed against seminary-trained scholars , for being theoretician and politically inactive. As the growth of secular education led expending numbers of Muslims to approach religious questions without skills that causes college graduates have the sacred texts and analyzed them in do-it  yourself theology, developing liberal interpretations as well as radical ones.

The social roots of Islamism are modern as well as their goals. Islamist political policy share western modernity. Islamists visualize overturning tradition in politics, social relations and religious practices. They are adverse to Saudi’s monarchy, like to abolish honoring of relics and tombs and favor egalitarian meritocracy. The support of Islamist organizations are a minority of Muslims and polls/studies show consistently that most of Muslims are against Islamists and their goals.

Blog #3 – Border Wars / ABCs

Tuesday, April 26th, 2011

In the video, “Border Wars-Libya,” people are shown leaving Libya to seek refuge in Tunisia. The UN was criticized for not responding fast enough in this crisis, so thousands of tents have been set up to accommodate the refugees. The refugees bring anything they can carry and are welcomed with gifts for their travels. When approached about leaving Libya, many are afraid to speak truthfully about Qaddafi as their leader. One man explained that he fears that his words will be used against his family that he has left behind in Libya.
The Red Cross has created places for the refugees to receive care in order to prevent diseases from spreading; including sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, scabies, and conjunctivitis. There is also a tent where many refugees get in line to gather food and water; but not everyone is able to be fed from the 10,000 meals being handed out daily. The Bangladeshi refugees are desperate and many would like to return back home; but the Somalian refugees have nowhere to go. A Somalian “Ambassador” came to the camp to try and get his people to come back to Somalia, but the refugees disagreed and demanded him to leave. Due to the ongoing war in their country, their futures remain uncertain.
In the audio, “The ABCs of Chinese Americans,” Helen Peng discusses the large Asian community residing in Flushing, Queens. The two main groups she discussed are known as FOBs (Fresh Off the Boat) and the ABCs (American Born Chinese). Helen is American born with Taiwanese roots. She discusses how her family members, who are old wave Taiwanese immigrants, have their own clicks and beliefs towards the “un-mannered” new wave of Chinese immigrants. There is tension between the two groups that resulting in aggressive encounters such as FOBs cursing at ABCs in Chinese.
Helen goes on to discuss a major issue many have with the new wave of Chinese immigrants; spitting. In China, it is normal for people to spit in public throughout the streets. Because many new wave immigrants are from the countryside, they are generally poor and are uneducated. These newer immigrants try to become a part of American culture, but it is difficult for them due to how they were raised back in China.

Blog #4- ABC’s and Libya Border Wars

Monday, April 25th, 2011

As I was listening to the audio on “The ABC’s of Chinese Americans” it really caught my attention. It’s always interesting to be able to relate to what the speaker is talking about. Flushing, Queens is one of the most well known places that almost every New Yorker has spent some time in. Of course attending Queens College for the last four years has brought me closer to Flushing. It is obvious that is one of the biggest Asian populations in the world and luckily for that, great food and culture is available right around the corner. I would have never known there were actually classifications of Asians. It was especially cool to learn that Helen Peng ( who was born and raised in America) was able to visit her roots and fell in love with Taiwan. I strongly believe that after being born and raised in America although your parents might be from another country, once visiting your homeland you’ll instantly fall in love. I could relate. If I was ever able to visit Tehran, Iran I would most definitely fall in love with everything about it. It was funny to hear how Helen Peng relates to the two classifications. It’s unfortunate that both are technically so different but oddly enough the FAB’s want to be like the ABC’s and vice versa. It’s also unfortunate that the two groups don’t get along that well. Who would have every thought this extremely distinct classification could cause problems throughout Flushing. She discusses the bigger issue between new and old immigrants. Due to political turmoil, and communism the older immigrants suffered more then the new immigrants. Throughout the entire audio it was easy to differentiate between the speakers that are FAB’s and ABC’s which isn’t necessarily a good thing, people from the same country should be able to get along. They should represent their country as a whole. Who cares if one group spits more then the other. It’s not the end of the world. Flushing will always remain the way it is and I’m not complaining certainly because of the delicious food they have been able to provide.

Libya- Border Wars

I had been following what was going on in Libya when the crisis first started. I would have never thought it was this extreme. After watching the Border Wars in Libya it really opened my eyes. I thought I was watching a clip from ancient history. There are so many refugees that are fleeing Libya was nowhere to go. No one can help them or at least that’s what it seems like. The reporter was extremely brave to film on such a dangerous border. People are constantly searched and the fate of their lives left questionable. I can’t imagine having to flee my home not knowing where I will end up. These Libyan refugees seem extremely brave. Although they are fleeing a major crisis they are attempting to save their families in a much more stable environment. Some people hope to flee to Morocco as soon as possible. I also was shocked to see the camps separated according to what country you came from. It seems like the Somalians are treated the worse. One family said they had to flee because Libya was killing foreigners living in their country. Unfortunately they can’t go back to Somali because it’s where they had originally fled because of crisis happening there as well. It was bizarre hearing Ghadafi’s voice over the loud speaker. Some citizens were fleeing Libya although they were happy with Ghadafi which was strange to me. Perhaps they are trying to avoid the dangers of living there. The UN doesn’t seem to be helping enough. Ten thousand out of twenty thousand refugees are given food rations. That clearly isn’t effective. People haven’t been able to eat for over 5 days. Watching this video was more shocking then anything. I want to just pick up and go help these people but it’s so dangerous. They could begin a violent protest at any minute. These refugees deserve to be safe and should be given the opportunity to relocate to a much safer place.

Blog Post 1: Thoughts on connections between Austerity and the Ehrenreich & Hochschild piece

Tuesday, April 5th, 2011

In class today we spoke of various social movements and protests that have made headlines within the last few years. We saw young adults protesting rising education fees in the UK, as well as the mass scale protests in Italy following the Irish bailout. Neither of these groups were afraid to use force; we saw groups vandalizing property and physical fighting across lines. The actors in these movements are responding to the European Union’s steps towards enforcing a more austere budget.  Austerity as a political concept revolves around a strict budget. So what’s the problem? Isn’t everyone happy to save some money?

Obviously not. The flow of money within the European Union has resulted in bailouts for some European countries and yet tightened budgets for others. The question of which sectors deserve the smallest cuts is a highly contested one in the EU at this time. It also applies around the world.  Who is really feeling the effects of these global money transfers? Who’s suffering?

“We are seeing serious disparities between the rich and the poor globally” is an absolutely true macrolevel statement. It reflects a theme popping up frequently in our class. We’ve read case studies and articles on this idea when we discussed economic globalization.Ehrenrich and Hochschild examine this theme on a more micro scale by looking at countries and cases (i.e. a woman from Sri Lanka) instead of operationalizing globally.

One thing that I am taking away from the Ehrenreich and Hochschild piece “Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy” is that most of the suffering in the world is endured by hidden populations. There are millions of women like Josephine who have had to migrate to find work due to economic displacement. Female migrants have moved to more developed capitalist and capitalist-like nations to find work. Where did they gain employ? The title of the piece is self-explanatory. Ehrenreich and Hochschild describe in their article the  “private ‘indoor’ nature of so much of the new migrant’s work” (532). The greater millions who are benefiting from this cheap migrant labor, why would they want to let go?

Cornel West spoke on the importance of recognizing and listening to suffering peoples in his address to a leftist forum. He urged his audience to show courage in standing up against inequality and injustice. He lectured on solidarity and being a catalyst. I really admire his message, and believe it is truth. We can’t all make a BIG difference in the world, and realistically not all us will. But if we can do little things everyday to contribute positively (or at least be a positive force in our own lives or the lives of others), then the effects are bound to be felt somewhere.

blog post 2 Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy

Tuesday, April 5th, 2011

Reading this article opened my eyes. Being in a sheltered community my whole life, I never had the opportunity to even hear anything that had to do with these poor women from these countries that had to change their whole lives in order to make money. Josephine gave up her lively hood and everything good in her life so she could support her children. She went through so much pain and suffering but where did it get her? Her children were suffering everyday without her. I am not a mother so I cant put myself in Josephine’s position but I think that it must have been really hard to live in poverty that she was willing to leave her children so they wouldn’t have to live like that. Her daughter Norma suffered the most I think because she was willing to take her own life. When it comes to that point, the person feels that being dead is easier than being alive, which is a direct effect of being left by her mother. No one can judge a mothers choices because they are the ones that know the meaning of true love for their child but I’d hope that there was a better solution than this.

Something that stood out to me in the article was when the Authors stated that women in western countries have started to have more careers and “paid work” and because of that it leads to them needing caretakers for their children. Because of this, women who come from poor countries have a reason to migrate which gives them the chance of coming out of their poverty and not having to live dirt poor anymore. Poverty pushes them to a point where, like Josephine, they have to give up their whole life, and more.

Along with women who are powerful and have money to employ these immigrants, men have even more money and the men in wealthier countries, according to the authors, are directly responsible for the demand for the immigrant sex workers. A reason for wanting the sex workers to be immigrants are because new immigrants take up the least desirable work. They are more likely to just take what they can and thats really unfortunate because that doesn’t mean they aren’t smart or done have more to offer.

Blog #3 Paul Mason, Meltdown. The End of the Age of Greed

Monday, April 4th, 2011

Paul Mason describes his personal view on the financial crisis. He discusses what happens with “neoliberalism”  and how it has become  broken in society. He feels that as the financial crisis carries on, it is easier to put the pieces together. He makes a number of connections to literature and film. He actually has a very effective stage presence. The analogy he uses to describe the poison banks makes it extremely more real and easy to grasp. Although I am not familiar with the names he mentions, he is able to describe everything they believe in. He talks about global trade falling apart due to a decrease in the global distribution system. Once it hits the state, it becomes more real. Bailouts become more apparent and noticable. He refers to the London Conference of 2006 as a starting point of the crisis. States were not strong enough to handle this. Countries began depending on the American system. States went straight to American markets. Mason claims that this too helped cause the global financial crisis. He says that American politics are being torn apart because the global economy relied on America to help them, although we probably were not able to even help ourselves. Heavy taxes and the loss of homes began increasing worldwide. Mason constantly refers to the “acid” that caused the crisis in regards to poison from the alien he described earlier in his discussion. Due to this, globalization is being destroyed. Perhaps it is also because of neoliberalism. In my opinion I strongly believe that Paul Mason might want to go back in time and handle economics differently. “The Banks didnt act in their own interest”, this makes me think about whose interest they were acting in. Lehman Brothers blew their bank up. They sat back and let things happen. Whatever they were doing behind doors clearly ruined them. This reminds me of something; as soon as Lehman Brothers fell, the New York Hall of Science (where I work) removed them from their corporate list. This now makes sense to me. Lehman Brothers employees were storming in showing their I.D’s attempting to get in for me. Not anymore my friends. Simple because once the bank fell, they stopped giving money to the museum. I really enjoy listening to Paul Mason. His enthusiasm makes it enjoyable and he speaks with honesty. Perhaps after the financial crisis, the age of greed will come to an end. After the fall so many major players in the global elite, this is what they deserve. Paul Mason critiques neoliberalism towards the end of the phase. He clearly does not believe in it. The more banks offer bailouts, the more bigger the hole gets. All these banks seem to be making matters worse once they issue a bailout, due to insurance and rates. Regardless of the the big fancy words Paul Mason uses, his points are clear.

Blog 4 on Political Globalization: Gender, Race, and Citizenship

Monday, April 4th, 2011

Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy:

Women from first world countries must work now, more than ever.  Most men no longer make enough money to support an entire family.  Increased divorce rates also force many women to work.  If women are working full time, who is watching the kids, cooking and cleaning?  A “second mommy” is often needed in first world country families where moms work full time.  These second moms come from third world countries.  Second moms (nannies) often leave their own children and families behind to work in first world countries.  Nannies are taking care of other families and children.  They do this to support their families by sending money back home.  While nannies from the third world depend on families in the first world for jobs, families in the first world now depend on women in the third world to take care of their children.  Many first world families now need nannies in order to survive.  Without a nanny, many woman would not be able to work because they would need to take care of their children.  Now that they can rely on nannies from third world countries, woman can go out and make money to support their families.  First world countries are now relying on third world countries.

I work in Great Neck, Long Island as a tutor/ babysitter.  When I take the children to the park, I am the ONLY babysitter there who is not a nanny from a third world country.  There are no moms at the park like when I was young.  Most children are there with a nanny who speaks little or no English. 

The Wealth Gap:

Women of color are faced with a double consciousness (as WEB Dubois would call it).  Not only are they oppressed because they are woman, but they are also of color.  Women of color earn an extremely disproportionate amount of wealth compared to white women and men of color.  The gap of wealth between women of color and others is shocking.  Even though on average, women of color earn more college degrees than men of color, the women still accumulate less wealth.  Even though some women of color have jobs which pay a decent salary (income), they do not hold jobs that include fringe benefits.  Men of color often hold jobs that include fringe benefits which allows them to accumulate wealth.  This is one reason that women of color have less wealth, on average, than men of color.  I always knew there was a wealth gap, however, these numbers were alarming.  If woman continue to have jobs where they do not receive fringe benefits, they will have less wealth to pass down from generation to generation.  This creates an endless cycle of low wealth among woman of color.  As suggested by Marico Chang, steps need to be taken to fix this gap.  Once suggestion was that we need to shift policies to create wealth creation instead of income creation.  This is one recommendation that could help to close the wealth gap.  Steps must be taken to close this gap.

Blog 3 on Organized Crime

Sunday, March 27th, 2011

Interview with Journalist Charles Bowden:

When I first started listening to Charles Bowden speak about all the murders occurring in Juarez Mexico, I was a little confused what this had to do with globalization.  While what is happening is horrible, I figured this was an unusual and unfortunate circumstance which was occurring in Juarez Mexico.  Like the interviewer, I didn’t see why Bowden viewed what is happening in Juarez as a “snapshot of the future” for other cities.  However, as Bowden continued it became clear and understandable why he would think this way.  People in Juarez are poor and unemployed.  Many people in Juarez do not even have running water or electricity.  Many people do not have homes.  They do not have public schools.  People are out of control because their surroundings and therefore lives are out of control.  Many people are in gangs.  Police forces on all levels have stepped in and have forcefully and violently been enforcing laws. People in Juarez are not being treated well.  Bowden believes that too many people in the world are being treated like those in Juarez.  Therefore, Juarez is an example of what cities, which are similar to Juarez, will soon look like.  The world should take the city of Juarez as an example of what happens when workers are paid too little, jobs are scarce and the government doesn’t make sure people are supplied with the necessary structure needed to thrive.  Looking at the global economy today, Bowden’s suggestions are frightening.  Too many people, in too many cities, in too many countries, are being treated like the people in Juarez.  This segment got me thinking, maybe Bowden is right.  Maybe it is just a matter of time people chaos and massive murdering strikes these cities too.

Drug Growers- Pakistan

The Holy War in Pakistan is such a “sticky” situation.  While hashish and opium are part of the culture of the Pashtun tribe, it is causing many problems for Pakistan.  One in eleven boys over the age of fifteen are drug addicts in Pakistan!  These numbers are staggering.  I believe that it is the government’s job to protect the people.  The Pakistan government must step in and stop the growing of opium.  It is affecting the lives of too many Pakistani citizens.  The farmers of this opium depend on Pakistani citizens to buy and consume the opium.  They are selling to those outside of the Pashtun tribe and therefore should be forced to put an end to growing opium.  To make matters worse, farmers want to be compensated for their loss, if they are forced to stop growing opium. It is in the best interest of Pakistan and other countries to help switch crop growing from drugs to goods wanted by other countries.  The opium is being exported all over the world, not just to Pakistan.  The war is unfortunate but necessary to protect the people of Pakistan and control drug production and use.

Blog post 1 March 21 audio

Monday, March 21st, 2011

who would have thought so much goes into making cotton? You have to choose fabric design and where your getting your cotton from. According to the audio, there are cotton mills all over the world, including Uzbekistan and Mali but America is the biggest cotton distributor. While talking to a prominent cotton distributor, Pedro, we found out that the US and Brazil are in a war over cotton. Brazil says that America has an unfair advantage because of the help it gets from the government. I thought that was really interesting because I was never aware of that. It makes me wonder what else is happening with the government that we really don’t know about. Where else is our money going?

While it goes back and forth between the countries,  brazil is stated as feeling that they are at a disadvantage. They don’t feel that it is necessary for them to back down when America is at such a higher advantage and they recieve more help. Hearing this audio makes me feel that all America really cares about is money and making a profit. America wants to pay money to get what they want, what a surprise. I agree with Chana, because she says that at the end of the day, we get our cotton from America and its like they basically chose for us and we have already paid for it because of the taxes so why not take advantage.

“Incensed About Inequality” Blog Posting #1

Monday, March 7th, 2011

Although I have spent the last four years of my college career studying Ancient Roman history, reading about the global economy is almost equivalent to learning a new language. Martin Wolf discusses the economic growth in countries that are most often considered the poorest. I can imagine Marin Wolf as a young economist just starting out in the rough streets of India declaring how poverty stricken this beautiful country is. Despite it’s filthy streets and how much of the population is poor, what I believe is more important is the beautiful culture that fills the countless numbers of cities that make up the country. Before shifting gears into culture and tradition, I suppose I can spend some time on the ever increasing income on households not only in India but other countries as well. Between 1980- 2000, two of the worlds biggest populations would witness an increase in GDP per head and would slowly fall out of one of the biggest issues we face in the world: poverty.

Martin Wolf describes a number of statistics that seem endless. One point he makes that I would like to discuss is the idea that although China and India have been considered the poorest countries with the biggest populations, there are still countries with a much smaller population that seems to be suffering from poverty. Perhaps China and India have proved economists wrong due to the increase in GDP. The point I believe he is trying to make is that is has become more apparent that smaller countries are suffering far worse then bigger ones.Perhaps this is because these countries that are suffering go unnoticed, as long as the countries with the larger population are doing better in the economic world, smaller countries like Sierra Leone is now one of the poorest countries.

It is apparent that the rise in equality has been overthrown by economic growth of countries throughout Asia, and Europe.  Regardless of how well a country might be doing on an economic stand point, what truly matters is the welfare of the people. Wolf discusses an increase in life expectancy amongst a number of countries. According to Wolf, ” improvements  in life expectancy have meant a decline in global inequality”, might be something to debate about. Although it is great that people are living longer, inequalities will never go away.

Communist Manifesto and John Gray

Thursday, February 10th, 2011

The “Communist Manifesto” written by Karl Marx in 1848 is one of the most well known pieces advocating social change. Though it was written to promote communism, it can be used as a launching pad to discuss countless ideas, especially those involving globalization.
Marx claims that the discovery of America “paved the way” for modern industry, out of which grew the world market. This world market has led to the spread of commerce and communication, and the middle class. This bourgeoisie has led to revolutionary ideas, including the one that states that the differences between man will no longer be cultural, political, etc…but rather the focus will primarily  be monetary worth. In turn, free trade was established which helped expand not only the market globally,  but the middle class as well.
“In place of old wants, satisfied by the production of the country, we find new wants, requiring for their satisfaction the products of distant lands…” This desire which has been fueled by the bourgeosie, leads to globalization as we know it and to the process of civilizing even the most “barbaric” societies. However, as Marx continues, he claims that there will eventually be a crisis based on the OVER-production and civilizing done to said societies.
Marx describes the harm that can be caused by globalization, the robotic way humans will interact. They will focus simply on monetary values and live according to one, Western culture which will eventually be consumed by the obsession with profit.

John’s Gray’s work, “From the Great Transformation to the Global Free Market,” looks at globalization completely differently, though its views are not necessarily more positive.  He claims that the goal of creating the free market was to do away with social cohesion in the economic world. The essence of a global free market does NOT mean America taking over all economic systems and the entire world becoming Westernized. This view is tremendously different than that of Marx. Rather, claims Gray, promotes new ideas (political, social, economic, etc…) to be spread and shared all over the world.
Gray, like  Marx, says that personal freedom is robbed by the free market. A  paradox is created as the single global market now led by American organizations is threatened by globalization. Moreover, the division of labor (which was formed in part by the help of technology) is unstable and with globalization this instability is spreading.

Though globalization means a spreading or sharing of culture, the ideas regarding this concept are far from shared which can clearly be depicted by the different arguments in Marx and Gray’s writings.

Debating Globalization (Blog 1)

Thursday, February 10th, 2011

Throughout Chapters 1 and 2 of The Globalization Reader by Lechner and Boli, the authors discuss the diverse views towards globalization. Even though the authors believe that globalization is beneficial to those involved, many argue the contrary. Because globalization is often associated with the West, one may fear the process and outcome of globalization involving one’s nation.

According to the authors, globalization benefits everyone. Producers have a greater selection of the tools they need along with a free market to sell what they produce. Consumers benefit due to having an affordable variety of goods to choose from. Therefore, the power of the government is limited allowing free trade for everyone; “freedom to define our own identities.”

The process of globalization has positively contributed to many nations throughout the world. According to the authors, globalization has contributed to travel, trade, the spread of cultural influences, knowledge, and the understanding of science and technology around the world. Even though globalization is beneficial to many, there is also plenty of room for improvement.