Archive for the ‘Creolization Essay – Assignment # 1’ Category

Creolization of Scientology

Wednesday, March 16th, 2011

Scientology has been a part of one of the most controversial religious movements to appear during the 20th century.  Its original purpose was intended to be a new psychotherapy and was not expected to become a religion.  As a religion, the Church of Scientology was incorporated in Camden, New Jersey by creator L. Ron Hubbard. Scientology brings a method of spiritual rehabilitation through counseling known as auditing. This counseling aims to bring back painful or traumatic events in ones past in order to free themselves of their limiting effects. Reliving and conquering painful pasts will then bring the Scientologist to the thetan, or ones true identity as a spiritually free individual.

Even before Scientology was introduced as a religion the term “Scientology” was used and valued differently. In 1901, Allen Upward coined Scientology “as a disparaging term to indicate a blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine”. In 1934, Anastasius Nordenholz used the term to mean “science of science”. Now the term has a whole new meaning as a religion and has gained recognition worldwide. Countries like Australia, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Sweden, Croatia, Hungary and Kyrgystan practice the religion of Scientology and even performances of marriages have been made in South Africa through the practice.

L. Ron Hubbard’s religious creation of Scientology has come a long way through the years spreading far away from its original location in New Jersey and has brought many followers as its recognition grows. In 2005, the Church of Scientology stated membership worldwide to be 8 million, but this included people who did not continue on after the introductory level. In 2007, 3.5 million members were reported in the United States. Membership reported decreased in 2008 to a low of 25,000 members, this may be a false count because the number reported represents how many people identified as Scientologists when asked their religion.

Although Scientology members have fallen to a smaller portion as it once did this does not hide the fact that the practice of Scientology has evolved. Scientology now operates 8 churches that are “Celebrity Centers” where entertainers as well as other people are welcome. This has caused controversy being that the Church of Scientology looks to converting celebrities to advocate the beliefs of the religion but I believe this is a smart method in order to get more members. Entertainers such as John Travolta, Kristie Allen, Lisa Marie Presley, Tom Cruise and Will Smith are just a few who have publicized Scientology.

Creolization essay #1

Friday, March 11th, 2011

Religion is one aspect of the spread of creolization. This includes colonization and spread of religion to a group of people. For example, the Spanish conquerors in South America, and the spread of Catholicism in Haiti. The spread of Catholicism made slaves believe in Gods that came from Africa. From this came the creole religion created in Haiti called voodoo. African slaves in Haiti contributed to their spiritual beliefs and the beliefs of the slave owner.

In the US, creolization has spread to cities such as New York City and Florida. Haitians are a big part of these two places. There is little Haiti where they are growing in numbers, bringing along their religious beliefs that help them shape into a diverse place among other cultures and nationalities.

Facebook : An Active Creolization Machine

Thursday, March 10th, 2011

What is creolization? In the simple way to say creolization is well accepted new culture mixed with native or local culture. We can see creolization around us. When diversity progressed in the globe creolization happened. Pizza is very common US but pizza is not an American food Italian and Greek immigrant brings this food. Dominoes and Pizza hart makes this pizza fast but not like Italian pizzerias. This is real world example of creolization.

Come to another country and keep touch with childhood friends not vary easy things. I moved to New York September 2002 from Bangladesh. Long distance phone call is expensive and time distance just opposite from USA. Internet is the blessing of modern technology that changes some of our life style. This is not first time I am creolized by the blessing of science it is started when first time I am introduced satellite television network to our home. Fifteen years ago we can watch four satellite TV channels now we have over 200 TV Channels from around the Globe. People their favorite TV star as like western world. These cultural changes happened in the small town of Bangladesh. I keep touch with my friends via e mail. They send me letters and it takes two to three weeks to reach my home.

Facebook not only change my friendship with my childhood friend it also changes the way of living million people in the Globe. I think after the Roman Empire, Islamic and British era Facebook is the biggest event that has so much influence to our daily life. Romans rule the Europe; Islam rules Arabs, south East Asia and British spread their culture around the world that we still flow. Facebook is not way behind them it has 600 millions active account in 32 languages that mean if you don’t know English still you can use Facebook. Makes new friends makes comment on their picture and like me you can find your old friends. The Telegraph makes a repot on Facebook 15Jul 2009 that during the month of June attracted 87 million US users, who each spent an average of four hours and 39 minutes on the site. Father found his lost daughter via Facebook. Big or small corporation , Profitable or non profit organization and most recognizable institution  has Facebook account.Revulsion in Egypt happened through Facebook.

Facebook is a source of lost and found for relative and friends. Like an active volcano Facebook is an active creolization mechanism and its work 24 hours.

FaceBook In Reality

Creolization Essay

Thursday, March 10th, 2011

According to, creolization is the hybridization of a culture, as it absorbs and transforms forces from outside. A cultural practice that I have chosen that has spread from one geographic location to another is Iranian Music. Before Iranians migrated to other countries, their music was more traditional and the singers were older. The origin of the songs were more traditional and related to the older crowd. They were slower and had specific meanings.

In 1979 the Shah was taken out of Iran and the government situation took a turn for the worse. Many Iranians left their homes to start a better life. Both my parents had to leave their homes and start new lives in America. They themselves had no problem keeping their traditions alive because it was all they knew, it was their comfort zone.

From experience in my own home I realized my parents were trying to have my siblings and I listen to more traditional music so we wouldn’t forget where we came from. Being so Americanized, my siblings and I weren’t interested in the music. We were used to upbeat, exciting music so it was hard for us to find a common Ground with anyone from an older generation.

 As time went on, artist realized what was happening and younger artists became well known in the Iranian community in order to keep some sort of interest in the culture alive. The artist realized that if they changed their beats and made them more Americanized and hip they would not only be able to keep the younger generations interested, but the culture would continue to grow and not be forgotten.

Now that the younger generations have grown a liking to the music and still make it part of their everyday life, there is still a connection to their heritage and the culture that their parents came from. The change in the type of music gave me something to help me connect with my older relatives and because of that we enjoy each others company more and have more in common. The adaptation gave us the link to stay connected as a family.

Assignment #1 – The Creolization of Coffee

Thursday, March 10th, 2011

Without coffee, it would probably be quite a bit harder for most of us to get up in the morning. Especially in the US, our conceptualization of coffee revolves around Starbucks, Dunkin Donuts, and our local coffee house.  Coffee has undergone the process of creolization; it’s become commercialized and has spread around the world. As it did that, its value changed. Thanks to creolization, the idea of morning coffee is an institution, now more than ever. So where was this legacy born?

Coffee Arabica (the finest bean) is believed to have been discovered in 600AD growing along the central Ethiopian plain land; trees had also been growing in Yemen. The Arab people guarded the Arabica beans until 1650, when seeds were stolen by an Indian traveler who then returned back to India. The French and then the Dutch would attempt to grow coffee. While the French failed for growing the beans too far up north, the Dutch were able to successfully breed coffee trees from seed. In 1715, the Dutch gave Louis XIV of France a coffee tree as a sign of favor and good will. This coffee tree, called the Noble Tree, is the tree from which all coffee in France is derived. It continues to produce seeds which are sent back and grown in Ethiopia. From France, coffee tree seeds traveled with nobles to the Caribbean. Being geographically close France, soon England had coffee.  Of course, this meant that our colonial ancestors soon were soon able to enjoy it.

Dorothy Jones was the first woman in the American colonies licensed to sell coffee. She sold coffee seeds to enterprising young colonists. Coffeehouses became extremely common. During the Revolution, coffeehouses were sites of pro-colonial sentiment. Colonists planned the Boston Tea Party while at a coffeehouse. The Declaration of Independence was first read publicly at a coffeehouse, and plans for the Constitutional Congress were conceived in a coffeehouse.

There’s no argument that the number of coffeehouses in the US has skyrocketed since then. Americans love their coffee. Besides its delicious taste, a cup of coffee represented many things in the past that it still represents today: warmth, energy, a moment’s peace.  Not much has changed in how we view our coffee (except perhaps for those who grab their coffee on the go, it is not so much “a moment’s peace” but the willpower they need to get to work).

The aspect of coffee which has creolized is its method of delivery. In America it seems we want our coffee to be served quickly and to taste impeccable. We do not want to go to a coffee shop and get good coffee the first day, bad coffee the next. Chains like Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts have capitalized on these market desires, opening up across the country. They each serve their own products and thus each has developed a specialized language – like a grande skinny caramel macchiato or a medium vanilla dunkaccino. Small individual coffee shops which open up as a countermovement to this commercialization do find success, but it is often limited to localized regions or neighborhoods. The most lucrative coffeehouses are the national chains. This is one way that coffee consumption differs in the US as compared to other places in the world. In Europe for example, though Starbucks exists, it is not the norm. Starbucks is mostly found in airports to accommodate tourists. Additionally, Dunkin Donuts is almost nonexistent outside of the US. Rather, the local population drinks at locally run coffeehouses.

The ways in which coffee preferences and coffee distribution have evolved are quite extraordinary. No other beverage has the universal appeal of coffee.  As it travelled around the world, its nature changed and shaped lives.

Source: “Coffee and its Origins.” Online.

Creolization of Rugby

Thursday, March 10th, 2011

Growing up in New York City has given me the chance to experience new culture on a daily basis. Living in one of the most diverse cities in the world has taught more about how the rest of the world lives. Lucky for us, the idea of creolization has helped this country grow do to  new culture that has traveled over geographical space and landed in a place where new culture is accepted. Specifically dealing with objects, people, food, and sports, etc it is safe to say that when it comes to dinner time I have the option of eating almost any type of food I want. Whether it’s Chinese, Italian, Indian, Persian or Tai food I can walk no more then three blocks and be satisfied with my choice without having to travel half way across the globe. Regardless of  what ethnic food I’ll eat tonight is going to be, some of the most greatest fads have traveled the distance and ended up in our households. Perhaps this happens without us even realizing but the constant move of culture from one place to another is what makes this city (and many others too) so unique.

From the far stretches of the western hemisphere to our own backyards, there is no question that cultures and lifestyles of completely separate regions find a way to melt together. This process of globalization can be seen in the clothes we wear, food we eat, music we enjoy, and games we play. One may not think to include this idea that the games we play are an example of creolization but indeed it is. Perhaps the best example how a sport was able to spread throughout the world taking pieces from many different places along the way is the game of rugby.

First started in 1823, rugby was little more than a group of hooligans who upon finding themselves bored with the game of soccer simply picked the ball off the ground and began to run with it. Games like this one had never been played before in Britain and it was slow to catch on. As time went by, rules were created for the few university schools who chose to have a side. In 1870, a man from New Zealand by the name of Charles Monro, returned home to his country after completing his education at an English university. This spread of rugby from England to New Zealand his a great demonstration of the spread of culture throughout the world, however it is only the first major more for the game of rugby.

Around 1872, rugby clubs were organized in France, Scotland, and Germany creating international games. This was a first since it would have been impossible to hold matches between England and New Zealand because of the great distance. On October 19, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue hotel in New York City in order to come up with a set up rules which these teams could all agreed on. On May 14 of that same year, Harvard hosted the first rugby game ever played on American soil.

The game of rugby, once a barbaric game played by men doing little more than playing soccer with their hands has transformed into what it is today through the process of creolization. The spread of the game throughout the world created change but eventually led to unification. It is an incredible how one game started by a few could grow into a worldwide common game. Perhaps the next step is for the game to become more mainstream in the U.S. but we shall see…here are a few pictures of rugby in action..don’t mind the truly is a great game to watch.

Creolization Essay: The Spread of Drifting to America

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011


Creolization refers to the creation of new cultures through the blending and adaptation of older cultures.  It is an ongoing process amplified by technological innovations, as distant parts of the world are now able to communicate and express ideas instantly.  One influence that has spread to North America, Europe, and even the Middle East in recent decades is Japan’s automotive tuning culture.  Japan has a rich automotive heritage based around both legal and illegal automotive competitions.  The most recent form of Japanese competition to spread around the world is underground “drifting”, which has been popularized by movies such as The Fast and Furious: Tokyo Drift.

Drifting is a form of racing very different from NASCAR or drag racing, both of which are both very popular in the United States.  Drifting is a style of competition where drivers purposely slide their cars at extreme angles around corners while maintaining control of their vehicle.  In these competitions, it doesn’t matter who finishes first, but rather, who demonstrated the most skill and who can put on the best show.  In a nutshell, drifting is an art form that relies on driver skill and car balance instead of high horsepower, and some would consider it “ballet for cars”.

Drifting, as we know it today, was invented in Japan in the 1970’s by professional race car drivers who believed that sliding around corners, although difficult and dangerous, would allow them to maintain higher speeds and therefore win more races.  This technique quickly spread through Japan’s automotive tuning culture, where it evolved into illegal competitions on Japan’s mountainside roads.  Japanese tuners no longer built cars meant for racing at high speeds, but rather they built cars that were well balanced and designed to slide around corners and curves at extreme angles while the drivers maintained control.  Underground (illegal) street racing in Japan became based around this new form of competition throughout the late 1970’s and 1980’s, and by the 1990’s  the drift culture gained enough support that drifting grew into a highly organized event.

As drifting grew into an underground culture in Japan its influence slowly trickled out to other parts of the world.  In the U.S., drifting caught on in the Southern California region as well as in the Northeast, where car enthusiasts often import both automotive styles and ideas from Japan.  Through the early 2000’s, car enthusiasts in America quickly flocked to drifting, and the lifestyle associated with it.  No longer were cars modified for high horsepower or to be flashy, but instead they were modified in order to obtain perfect balance and control for drifting.  Cars were built to be lightweight and functional instead of loud and flashy, just like in Japan.  Drift enthusiasts here in America bought and built cars almost identical to those in Japan, including Toyota Supras and Nissan 240sx’s.

Although the American adaptation of drifting is very similar to drifting in Japan, some differences exist in America.  For instance, while Japan is seemingly full of winding mountain roads, New York City is not.  Therefore, drifting in America mainly occurs on city streets late at night, or in large, empty parking lots.  Another key difference is that American drifters actually drift at higher speeds with less finesse while Japanese drifters are known for drifting at lower speeds with more finesse.  Also, drifters in America have adapted larger, heavier, and more powerful vehicles for drifting, including American “muscle cars”.  Even though American drifting has been considered less “pure” than drifting in Tokyo, American drifting styles are beginning to make their way back to Japan and Japanese car enthusiasts have started incorporating American styles into their cars.  It’s not uncommon to find cars in Japan modified with American produced parts in order to attain the authentic “American” look.

As drifting continues to spread around the world, international organizations have formed to support drifting as a world wide motorsport.  Although Japan is credited with the creation of drifting, each country has their own spin on the sport.  Increased communication between countries and car enthusiasts of the world allows the sport to grow and change, but most importantly, it allows everyone to be get a piece of the action.

DC shoes Sponsored Drift Commercial

Japanese Mountain Drifting


Andrew Ganga

Creolization Essay

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011

Creolization can be easily defined as a mixture of ethic cultures and customs to produce a diverse set of commodities and peoples. Lechner and Boli stated that creolization “allows the sense of complex culture as a network of perspectives, or as an ongoing debate.” They believe that though creolization is “open-ended; the tendencies towards maturation and saturation are understood as quite possibly going on side by side, or interweaving.” Though creolization can be opaque, unyielding a definite defined new culture, many admirable entities emerge from this mixture of cultures.

One example of this emergence is a new fusion of harmonized beats and lyrical melodies, present in the album Distant Relatives. This album was produced by hip hop artist Nas, along with singer song writer Damien Marley, the son of musician Bob Marley. Both musicians are extremely talented yet have very different song styles. Nas’ hip hop music is most often associated with rap, while Marley, along with his father, are most noted for their unique reggae style music. Though both artists come from different backgrounds and social status’, each one has something special to offer to the album.

Many fans of both artists were surprised, and anxious at the rise of this album. Many were impressed with the real life issues being represented in the album, along with it’s Zion-style of presentation. Listeners have indeed taken on a new concept of music after enjoying the collaboration.  The artists had decided to put forth this album to prove that there are more important issues that race and culture inequalities that must be addressed. Both artists came together to mix their own unique qualities while noting the importance of poverty, equality and religious freedom.

Both Nas and Damien took a trip to Trenchtown to film some of the albums videos, while experiencing firsthand the Jamaican culture. This allowed Nas to write about an experience he had truly felt, rather than speaking of something he knew very little of.  The albums success linked Jamaican cultures and Western cultures alike. Global success was not difficult for Distant Relatives due to the albums realizations of an array of cultural commodities, and practices.

Those who listen to hip hop music may like the beat and lyrics, as well as reggae fans like the melody and tone of their music, yet Distant Relatives was the first album to represent a concept through the voice of two musical icons. Creolization is most definitely present in the work of Nas and Damien Marley, as I very sure they are aware. The impact of the album has precisely proven that cultural relativism is present today amongst even the famous.

Distant Relatives: Trenchtown Rock


The Globalization Reader, Frank Lechner, John Boli, 2008

Creolization Essay

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011

Robyn Kurman
Sociology 279
Professor Hala

Creolization refers to the interplay between world culture and national cultures, focusing on how commodities, or cultural objects and practices more generally, are assigned meanings and uses in receiving cultures. The idea of creolization calls attention to how people make and remake culture and how culture changes over geographic and historical space. An example of creolization, is the culture of “hip-hop”. The term “hip-hop” consists of two separate slang words. “Hip” means current or in the know, while “hop” refers to the hopping movement(wikipedia).
Hip-hop originated in African-American communities, in New York City in the late 1970s. At first hip-hop music consisted of just rhythmic beats however as it developed the rhythmic beats turned into rap. Rap music consists of beatboxing, chanting, and poetry presented in 16 bar measures. As rap music became more popular, dance moves were created to go along with the beats and a hip-hop style of dress was formed as well(wikipedia).
At first hip-hop artists would perform at basket ball courts, the streets, and at 1520 Sedgwick Ave, in the Bronx a building that is known as the place “where hip-hop was born”. In the 1970s hip-hop started to develop in the South Bronx of New York City. Many gang members began to participate in the hip-hop culture. Afrika Bambaataa, created a street organization known as the “Universal Zulu Nation” so that gang members could channel their violent urges into something creative. As the culture continued to spread it began to receive media attention (wikipedia). Today hip-hop culture is not only popular amongst minority groups; it has also spread to affluent suburbs. It is a style today amongst teenage boys everywhere to dress in baggy jeans, high top sneakers and to listen to rap music.
Many hip-hop artists wear baggy jeans, loose t-shirts, and high top sneakers. However, the baggy jean style began in prisons as popular rap stars did not have belts to hold up their pants because the guards were afraid they may hurt someone or hang themselves. Even after the rappers were released from jail, they continued to wear their pants without a belt to show that they had been in jail (Neer). Since they are celebrities, baggy pants became fashionable even in the suburbs where affluent families tend to reside. Some of the most profitable, and popular, brands began in the hip-hop industry; for example, Phat Farm is worth close to $325 million (Neer).
Hip-hop culture began in the United States but has now gone global. Canada, The Middle East, France, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, India and many other countries have started to create their own style of hip-hop culture. Although the styles differ, there are also some similarities. The U.S Department of State said that hip-hop is “now the center of a mega music and fashion industry around the world”. National Geographic stated that “just about every country on the planet seems to have developed its own local rap scene”(wikipedia).
Hip-hop culture is an example of creolization as it has been modified as it moves around the globe. It has also spread from one geographic location to another.
Work Cited
Neer, Katherine. “HowStuffWorks “Hip-hop Fashion”” Howstuffworks “Entertainment” Web. 02 Dec. 2010. <>.

Assignment#1 – Creolization Essay

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011


One of my favorite meals, sushi, had its humble beginnings over 2000 years ago in Southeast Asia or China. Rice is, and has been the staple grain in Southeast Asia, cultivated for over 4000 years, and fish has been the main source of protein. Sushi, which means “it’s sour” was origanally a fermented fish dish, or more precisely, a way to preserve fish. The fish was salted and packed in rice. As the rice fermented, it preserved the fish for several months. The rice itself was thrown away. This process probably reached Japan in the 8th century A.D. In the early 1800’s, a non-fermented, ready to eat version was created by Yohei Hanaya, in Tokyo. Fish was rolled in rice, mixed with vinegar, and covered with seaweed. It was sold fresh from mobile food stalls. It was a fast food, eaten with one’s hands, and it quickly became a sensation in Tokyo, mainly with the lower classes. It wasn’t until the early 20th century that sushi spread throughout Japan and became a cultural icon.

In Japan, there are certain formal procedures required for eating sushi. If you are eating at Japanese sushi bar, place your chopsticks in front of you, parallel to the edge of the bar, with the narrowed end on the Hashioki(a square-shaped bowl, usually used for the soy sauce). Always dip the sushi upside down in the soy sauce, and eat it rice side up. Sushi should be eaten in one bite, but two bites are acceptable. However, the piece should never be put back down on the plate. The use of fingers is actually okay for eating sushi, but never sashimi. Also, you are not supposed to leave even a morsel on the plate, and it is considered rude to stick your chopsticks into the food. Finally, only men are allowed to prepare sushi.

Sushi made its way to California in the late 1960’s, most likely by way of Hawaii, which has a very large Japanese-American population. It was not successful though, until about 1973, when a sushi chef in Los Angeles created a roll with cooked crab meat, avocado, and mayonnaise. This California roll was the beginning of the acceptance of sushi. Every region soon had its own variation. The New York roll used apple instead of avocado, and the Philadelphia roll added cream cheese. Gradually, Americans became more daring and raw fish sushi gained acceptance. American sushi pieces are enerally larger than in Japan. It is also sweeter since the vinegar used in the rice is sweetened. With Americans desiring big meals, the portions served are larger. The traditional Japanese reverence for good quality food, in small portions, has disappeared in America.

In England and the rest of Europe, the idea of raw fish is even less desired. In many restaurants most of the fish is cooked. Also, many restaurants serve their food on a conveyor belt. Recently, in a sushi competition in London, the winning entry was a mozzarella, spring onion, and almond roll, with second place going to a mashed kipper with crispy bacon concoction.

So sushi has evolved as it has spread throughout the world. Part of its current allure is that, in most cases, it is a very healthy meal, and health food is a growing industry. Unfortunately, as fish becomes more expensive, due to a decreasing supply sushi may evolve into a meal for the rich only.

The Creolization of Reggaetón

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011

Growing up in the melting pot known as New York City, I personally have been exposed to many different cultures. Creolization is a term that stems from studying different cultures, referring to the interplay between world culture and national cultures; including cultural object and cultural practices. Reggaetón is a cultural object that originated in Latin America, but around the early 1990’s, has become ever more popular amongst young people living in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. This genre of music was at first all in Spanish, but gradually as this style of music becomes more popular elsewhere, the artists of Reggaetón have now adopted English into their music.

Reggaetón is a genre of dance music that first originated in Panama in the 1970s and expanded rapidly throughout countries in Latin America during the 1980s. Reggaetón gained recognition and popularity first in Panama and then mostly in Puerto Rico. The genre of Reggaetón however is more closely associated with Puerto Rico than Panama. Puerto Rico is where Reggaetón became the most popular and famous.

Reggaetón can be described as a blend of Jamaican music influences of reggae and dancehall incorporating Latin American music, such as salsa, meringue, bachata, bomba, and plena using a hip hop type of sound. Many Reggaetón artists commonly rap in Spanish in their music as well. Many reggaeton songs have a specific repetitive rhythm and explicit lyrics, which is usually accompanied by a form of grinding. While it takes influences from hip hop and Jamaican dancehall, the specific rhythm that characterizes Reggaetón is referred to as “Dem Bow”. The name is a reference to the title of the Jamaican dancehall song that first popularized the beat in the early 1990’s. Further controversy surrounds perreo, a dance with explicit sexual overtones which is associated with Reggaetón music.

Even though Reggaetón is the most popular in Spanish speaking countries, this style of music has recently begun to emerge in English speaking countries around the globe. Due to Reggaetón’s popularity amongst young people living in English speaking countries, many new Reggaetón artists have chosen to integrate English into their music. In cities such as New York and Miami, Reggaetón is popularly played genre of music heard in social gatherings and dance clubs. Artists like Daddy Yankee, Pitbull, Tego Calderon, Don Omar, Ivy Queen and Hector y Tito are all well-known artists in the Reggaetón world.

\”Toma\” by Pitbull ft. Lil Jon


\"Toma\" by Pitbull ft. Lil Jon

Assignment #1 – Creolization Essay. NBA Globalization

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011

The NBA is one of the fastest growing sport in the world.  According to a poll in 2010, Basketball is the third most popular sport in the world behind only football (soccer) and Cricket.  It is already the among the most popular sport in the countries of US, China, Russia, the Philippines, Russia, Canada, Argentina, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Puerto Rico by viewership.  Created in the US by Dr. James Naismith on December 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts, with a peach basket on a cold rainy day, the sport has revolutionized to over 200 countries and 42 languages and NBA holding offices in 11 and counting offices worldwide.

The NBA was generally seen as a sport of the west.  During the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, the “Dream Team” comprising of current NBA players of that time, dominated the international competition.  Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete in the olympics.  In 1992, the United States formed a team that included 10 top 50 players of all time.  The team included Magic Johnson (captain), Larry Bird (captain), Michael Jordan, Scottie Pippen, Karl Malone and others.  The team was so dominant that the coach, Chuck Daly, did not call a single timeout during the entire tournament.  The team won by an average of 43.8 points PER GAME.  The country that got closest to beating them was Croatia, who lost the game 117-85.  This shows the true dominance of this sport at that time.

Fast forward to today.  Just recently in 2002, at the FIBA World Tournament, the USA basketball team lost to Serbia and got knocked out of the tournament.  In the 2004 Olympics in Athens, USA again failed to win gold by losing to Argentina but beating Lithuania for the Bronze.  Between the time period of the Dream Team and the 2004 Olympics shows a growing popularity and competition in basketball.  Although in 2008 the “Redeem Team” did win back gold, it was clear that the world was starting to catch up to the US in basketball skills and fundamentals.

Today the NBA understands that basketball players are not only available in the US but all around the world.  Every NBA team currently has entire scounting teams that scour the globe for talents.  Just recently in the 2011 All-Star game, Yao Ming was voted by NBA fans from around the world to start as the Center for the Western Conference All-Stars.  Keep in mind, Yao Ming hasn’t played a single game this year due to injury but with the massive number of votes from China, he was voted on.  This shows how much of an influence the international community has on the NBA today.

Currently as of the 2010-2011 season, the NBA has 84 international players from 38 different countries and territories.  28 of the 30 teams feature at least one major player on their roster.  The Toronto Raptors currently have the most international players with 6, followed by the Dallas Mavericks and Utah Jazz with 5.  The Raptors roster represents 6 countries and France has the  most international NBA players with 11.  5 players were named to the 2011 NBA All Star team: Tim Duncan (Virgin Islands) (starter), Yao Ming (China), Manu Ginobili (Argentina), Pau Gasol (Spain), and Dirk Nowitzki (Germany).

Assignment 1 – Rubric & References (adding links)

Saturday, March 5th, 2011

Assignment # 1: grading rubric: Essays will be graded on the basis of content, writing, and formal requirements. Scores will be assigned for each subcomponent below, where:

1 = poor / 2 = needs work / 3 = good / 4 = excellent

Content: How well does essay address the following?
Geographic move:
Change in meaning/practice:
“Creolization”/other course concepts:
Organization, structure, and development:
Clarity and style (readability):
Mechanics (grammar & punctuation):
Formal requirements (Y/N)

Note on references & links: You may use online sources for your essays, including Wikipedia.  Use your judgment regarding credibility.  Keeping with the style for blogs, it is recommended that you add links to online sources in your post.  Instructions for inserting links can be found here:


Tuesday, October 12th, 2010

Creolization refers to the changes of meanings and usages of the cultural objects or practices when they are being spread and practiced around the global. In this essay, I will introduce how the practices of female circumcision originate and vary widely throughout the world.

Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), could be traced back to the 2nd century BC, when a geographer, Agatha chides of Cnidus, first documented it as it occurred among tribes living on the western coast of the Red Sea, which is the modern-day Egypt right now. The practices have originated in Egypt and spread to the south and west. Coptic Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that established in Egypt in the middle of the first century AD. The Coptic Christian believed that the practice is based on the cultural belief, that has formed into part of the religious tradition, that women should keep their virtue until marriage.
Some people believe that female circumcision was also rooted in the Pharaonic belief in the bisexuality of the gods. According to this belief, the mortals reflected the trait of the gods; every individual possessed both a male and a female soul. For healthy gender development, the female soul had to be excised from the man and the male soul from the woman. Thus, circumcision was important for boys to become men and girls to become women.

The operations are embedded in a wide range of cultural and historical contexts and can be quite different in definition, meanings, and effects. To understand the purposes and values of female circumcision in particular contexts, we need to relate it to specific cultural understandings of identity, gender morality, adulthood, bodily aesthetics, and other important aspects. For instance, in the Sudan, it is seen as increasing a woman’s beauty, purity, and cleanliness. For the Kikuyu people of Kenya, circumcision was the foundation of moral self-mastery for women, marked the initiation of adulthood. The age of circumcised varies according to cultural understandings. For example, girls in Mali and the Sudan are circumcised at the age of six to eight, while many communities in Kenya and Sierra Leone give the operation in the early teens. Yoruba people in Nigeria perform surgery to their children when they are just few days old, much like male circumcision in the United States and Europe.

Circumcision and excision are also related to moral concepts associated with shame and fertility. In Africa, circumcision is not performed after puberty, the operation is usually considered as a person’s social and moral development. The history of female circumcision in Europe and the United States are very different with most of the world with regard to circumcision age. For a century beginning in the 1850s, female genital cutting was prescribed as medical treatment for adult women in Europe and the United States for insomnia or sterility.

Female circumcision, a widespread cultural practice, has many different forms and meaning throughout the world. People’s perception of it is still ever-changing as evidenced in the heated debate around the issue with new concerns of the preservation of femininity in the light of human rights.

Creolization Essay – Assignment # 1

Monday, October 11th, 2010

Clare Baxter
Soc 279
Assignment 1
Creolization can be described in the geography dictionary as “The hybridization of a culture, as it absorbs and transforms forces from outside; the production of new local forms in response to globalization”. This mean that ideas and customs from different cultures manage to travel around the world and each society adapts, and re-creates them. Societies and their cultures were created with ides and views of other cultures, which is why around the world everyone understands similar ideas from other countries; like McDonalds. No matter where you go or where you are from McDonalds is a known eatery, and each culture has adapted to it. Although the food may differ depending on the country, it still has the same idea.
So many ideas and concepts have travelled the world. An example I gave before was McDonalds, no matter where you go everyone understands the idea and concept of McDonalds. Other examples would be music, clothing/fashion, rituals, and cars. I’m sure there are plenty others, but those are just a few I can think of. Even though when you break down these groups they may differ by region, the core of it is still the same. Each society brings their personality to re-create it.
The creolization of music is one thing that really stands out to me; it seems to be a part of everyday life in so many cultures. In our society you can see that music is involved in many different occasions, happy, sad, good and bad; people turn to music. Many of us even use a song to describe the way we feel. Music and society have a close relationship; music is able to create social conditions. With the advancement of recording techniques, an abundance of music is now available to everyone at the click of a button. Some societies try to limit the use of music because it has too much of a poor impact on their listeners, yet in other societies, they celebrate music in their culture every day and they even have rituals set aside involving music.
Indian society is known for using dance and music as part of their daily life, also in celebrating certain occasions and for education. There is no known start date but according to Wikipedia; “The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC Sāmaved.It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes, which were named, in descending order, as Krusht, Pratham, Dwitiya, Tritiya, Chaturth, Mandra and Atiswār”. Indian society uses music as their praise and also as stories. India is most known for their rich traditions in folk music, sometimes confused with tribal music. Tribal and folk may sound similar but folk music involves more of the reflection of the society rather than the culture, which is tribal.
We as children learn to tie our shoes and hold a fork, in Indian society music is so strongly correlated with their day to day life, the children are taught the rituals just by hearing and seeing what goes on every day. The teach lessons through songs, embrace new achievements and stepping stones in a young woman’s life. Certain rituals like a young girl becoming a woman involve song, all the woman in the society and exclude the men. They are able to sing loudly about what is going on while giving the young girl her first sari (an Indian piece of clothing). Some instruments they may use for this would be; drums such as daf, dholak, or nal, sitar and saro.
In our society we have a very similar resemblance. Although, we do not use the same type of instruments or have their rituals, we still use music in our everyday life and celebrate numerous occasions. How the Indians sing to their god, we have bells ringing at the church. Or when a bride walks down the aisle, there is a song for that to let everyone know the bride is coming. We are not taught that these songs have a meaning, it’s like osmosis. Another idea of celebrating an occasion would be a birthday; we have a song for that as well. So even though we have different languages and different cultures, it is the same idea. We have music and use it for many different functions, especially for celebrations.